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At CTC, polyps present soft tissue density, with enhancement after intravenous contrast injection, and are fixed at change in decubitus Figures 4 , 5 and 6. A periodic population screening is recommended after the age of An additional advantage of CTC is allowing, simultaneously, distant staging after intravenous contrast injection Figures 8 and 9. At CTC, infiltrating CRC is characterized by asymmetrical, irregular parietal thickening that may extend to the pericolic fat and structures. Inflammatory colorectal disease.
Ulcerative rectocolitis typically initiates in the rectum and extends towards the proximal colon, with inflammation restricted to the mucosa and the submucosa Figures 10 and Crohn's disease is a granulomatous inflammatory disease which may affect the whole gastrointestinal tract, but is most frequently observed in the terminal ileum and in the cecum The utilization of CTC in cases of intestinal inflammatory disorders and hereditary colon syndromes is controversial and is routinely contraindicated.
Notwithstanding such a controversy, CTC may be useful as an alternative strategy with a supplementary character in the diagnosis Colonic diverticular disease.
Colonic diverticular disease is the most common colonic disease, associated with diet-related factors, and may affect any part of the large bowel, but it is most commonly found in the sigmoid and very rarely in the rectum. At CTC, cases of advanced diverticular diseases are frequently observed, with segmental parietal thickening 11 Figure In order to avoid complications, CTC should be performed between four and six weeks after the conservative treatment of diverticulitis and previously performed biopsies 8, Lipoma is the most common mesenchymal tumor, which develops from the submucosa and may be large, with a predominantly extraluminal appearance.
The ileocecal valve is most commonly affected. The CTC allows the diagnosis confirmation based on the presence of fat content 11 Figures 13 and At CTC, endometriosis presents as a lesion with extramucosal retractile appearance and as focal intestinal wall thickening Figure The usefulness of CTC in endometriosis lies in the definition of the extent of the disease in cases where submucosal and infiltrative lesions simulating CRC are identified at OC Fecal residue polypoid-like.
It is the most common pseudolesion and differs from true polyps for being mobile, presenting heterogeneous attenuation and many times with intermingled gas, tending to present geometrical morphology.
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The bowel preparation with contrast agent ingestion is useful for labeling non-eliminated fecal residues, allowing their differentiation from true polyps 11 Figures 16 and Ileocecal valve is a lip-shaped structure and frequently accumulates fat, sometimes simulating polypoid lesions and lipomas 11 Figure The presence of an inverted appendicular stump after appendectomy may simulate a polyp. The typical location and coronal reformation may be useful for recognizing such pseudolesion 7 Figures 19 and The technical aspects related to bowel preparation and acquisition of CTC images, as well as the knowledge of the main characteristics of lesions and pseudolesions are of utmost importance to ensure the high performance of the method in the screening for colorectal neoplasias.
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CT Colonography: Principles and Practice of Virtual Colonoscopy
CT colonography: principles and practice of virtual colonoscopy. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; Performance of CT colonography in clinical trials. CT colonography: pitfalls in interpretation. Perhaps the single most important step in learning to avoid most of these diagnostic traps is simply to be aware of their existence. With a little experience, most of these potential pitfalls are easily recognized.
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David Hakbum Kim , Meghan G. Pavan Kumar , Dr.
Ayesha , Dr. Sandhya Rao. Deep transfer learning of virtual endoluminal views for the detection of polyps in CT colonography Janne J. Sub-milliSievert ultralow-dose CT colonography with iterative model reconstruction technique. References Publications referenced by this paper. Automated measurement of colorectal polyp height at CT colonography: hyperplastic polyps are flatter than adenomatous polyps.
Ronald M. Electronic cleansing and stool tagging in CT colonography: advantages and pitfalls with primary three-dimensional evaluation.
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